Publications

You can find a list of citations on my Google Scholar, ResearchGate, Semantic Scholar, dblp, ACM author, and ORCiD profiles.

Journal articles

T. Höller, M. Roland, and R. Mayrhofer: “Evaluating Dynamic Tor Onion Services for Privacy Preserving Distributed Digital Identity Systems”, Journal of Cyber Security and Mobility 11, 2, pp. 141–​164, 2022. ISSN 2245-​1439.
DOIfulltextJCSM
Abstract

Digital identity documents provide several key benefits over physical ones. They can be created more easily, incur less costs, improve usability and can be updated if necessary. However, the deployment of digital identity systems does come with several challenges regarding both security and privacy of personal information. In this paper, we highlight one challenge that digital identity system face if they are set up in a distributed fashion: Network Unlinkability. We discuss why network unlinkability is so critical for a distributed digital identity system that wants to protect the privacy of its users and present a specific definition of unlinkability for our use-case. Based on this definition, we propose a scheme that utilizes the Tor network to achieve the required level of unlinkability by dynamically creating onion services and evaluate the feasibility of our approach by measuring the deployment times of onion services.

@article{bib:2022-hoeller-jcsm, title = {{Evaluating Dynamic Tor Onion Services for Privacy Preserving Distributed Digital Identity Systems}}, author = {Höller, Tobias and Roland, Michael and Mayrhofer, René}, journal = {Journal of Cyber Security and Mobility}, volume = {11}, number = {2}, pages = {141--164}, publisher = {River Publishers}, doi = {10.13052/jcsm2245-1439.1122}, issn = {2245-1439}, year = {2022}, month = MAR }
M. Roland: “NFC-Zahlungen und mögliche Sicherheitsrisiken”, Recht der Zahlungsdienste (RdZ) 2022, 1, pp. 66–​69, 2022.
Abstract

Abbuchen von Geld im “Vorbeigehen”, Auslesen/Kopieren von Karten durch kurzes Auflegen eines Smartphone, Mithören von Transaktionen aus der Ferne; all das sind häufig genannte Angriffsszenarien im Zusammenhang mit Near-Field-Communication-(NFC-)Zahlungen. Doch stellen diese Szenarien ein ernsthaftes Sicherheitsrisiko dar? Gibt es weitere kritische Sicherheitsaspekte? Unterscheiden sich Zahlungen mit der Plastikkarte dahingehend von jenen mit dem Smartphone? Der nachfolgende Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über NFC-Zahlungen und deren potenzielle Sicherheitsrisiken.

@article{bib:2022-roland-rdz, title = {{NFC-Zahlungen und mögliche Sicherheitsrisiken}}, author = {Roland, Michael}, journal = {Recht der Zahlungsdienste (RdZ)}, volume = {2022}, number = {1}, pages = {66--69}, publisher = {Deutscher Fachverlag GmbH}, year = {2022}, month = FEB }
O. Mir, M. Roland, and R. Mayrhofer: “Decentralized, Privacy-Preserving, Single Sign-On”, Security and Communication Networks 2022, Article 9983995, 2022. ISSN 1939-​0114.
DOIfulltextSCN
Abstract

In current single sign-on authentication schemes on the web, users are required to interact with identity providers securely to set up authentication data during a registration phase and receive a token (credential) for future access to services and applications. This type of interaction can make authentication schemes challenging in terms of security and availability. From a security perspective, a main threat is theft of authentication reference data stored with identity providers. An adversary could easily abuse such data to mount an offline dictionary attack for obtaining the underlying password or biometric. From a privacy perspective, identity providers are able to track user activity and control sensitive user data. In terms of availability, users rely on trusted third-party servers that need to be available during authentication. We propose a novel decentralized privacy-preserving single sign-on scheme through the Decentralized Anonymous Multi-Factor Authentication (DAMFA), a new authentication scheme where identity providers no longer require sensitive user data and can no longer track individual user activity. Moreover, our protocol eliminates dependence on an always-on identity provider during user authentication, allowing service providers to authenticate users at any time without interacting with the identity provider. Our approach builds on threshold oblivious pseudorandom functions (TOPRF) to improve resistance against offline attacks and uses a distributed transaction ledger to improve availability. We prove the security of DAMFA in the universal composibility (UC) model by defining a UC definition (ideal functionality) for DAMFA and formally proving the security of our scheme via ideal-real simulation. Finally, we demonstrate the practicability of our proposed scheme through a prototype implementation.

@article{bib:2022-mir-scn, title = {{Decentralized, Privacy-Preserving, Single Sign-On}}, author = {Mir, Omid and Roland, Michael and Mayrhofer, René}, journal = {Security and Communication Networks}, volume = {2022}, articleno = {9983995}, numpages = {18}, publisher = {Hindawi}, address = {New York, NY, USA}, doi = {10.1155/2022/9983995}, issn = {1939-0114}, year = {2022}, month = JAN }
M. Hölzl, M. Roland, O. Mir, and R. Mayrhofer: “Disposable Dynamic Accumulators: Towards Practical Privacy-Preserving Mobile eIDs with Scalable Revocation”, Int. J. Information Security 19, pp. 401–​417, 2019. ISSN 1615-​5270.
DOIfulltext
Abstract

Providing methods to anonymously validate user identity is essential in many applications of electronic identity (eID) systems. A feasible approach to realize such a privacy-preserving eID is the usage of group signature protocols or pseudonym-based signatures. However, providing a revocation mechanism that preserves privacy is often the bottleneck for the scalability of such a system. In order to bridge this gap between practicability and privacy, we propose a new pseudonym-based mobile eID signature scheme suitable for smart cards and secure elements that also enables efficient and scalable revocation checks. By using a pseudorandom function, we derive one-time verification tokens used for identity verification as well as revocation checks and generate proofs of validity using a new method referred to as disposable dynamic accumulators. Our scheme preserves unlinkability and anonymity of the eID holder even beyond revocation and does not require online connectivity to a trusted party for verification and revocation checks.

@article{bib:2019-hoelzl-ijis, title = {{Disposable Dynamic Accumulators: Towards Practical Privacy-Preserving Mobile eIDs with Scalable Revocation}}, author = {Hölzl, Michael and Roland, Michael and Mir, Omid and Mayrhofer, René}, journal = {Int. J. Information Security}, volume = {19}, pages = {401--417}, publisher = {Springer}, address = {Berlin Heidelberg}, doi = {10.1007/s10207-019-00458-7}, issn = {1615-5270}, year = {2019}, month = JUL }
F. K. Carvalho Ota, M. Roland, M. Hölzl, R. Mayrhofer, and A. Manacero: “Protecting Touch: Authenticated App-To-Server Channels for Mobile Devices Using NFC Tags”, Information 8, 3:81, 2017. ISSN 2078-​2489.
DOIfulltext
Abstract

Traditional authentication methods (e.g., password, PIN) often do not scale well to the context of mobile devices in terms of security and usability. However, the adoption of Near Field Communication (NFC) on a broad range of smartphones enables the use of NFC-enabled tokens as an additional authentication factor. This additional factor can help to improve the security, as well as usability of mobile apps. In this paper, we evaluate the use of different types of existing NFC tags as tokens for establishing authenticated secure sessions between smartphone apps and web services. Based on this evaluation, we present two concepts for a user-friendly secure authentication mechanism for mobile apps, the Protecting Touch (PT) architectures. These two architectures are designed to be implemented with either end of the spectrum of inexpensive and widely-available NFC tags while maintaining a reasonable trade-off between security, availability and cost.

@article{bib:2017-carvalhoota-information, title = {{Protecting Touch: Authenticated App-To-Server Channels for Mobile Devices Using NFC Tags}}, author = {Carvalho Ota, Fernando Kaway and Roland, Michael and Hölzl, Michael and Mayrhofer, René and Manacero, Aleardo}, journal = {Information}, volume = {8}, number = {3:81}, publisher = {MDPI}, address = {Basel, Switzerland}, doi = {10.3390/info8030081}, issn = {2078-2489}, year = {2017}, month = JUL }
M. Hölzl, E. Asnake, R. Mayrhofer, and M. Roland: “A password-authenticated secure channel for App to Java Card applet communication”, International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications 11, 4, pp. 374–​397, 2015. ISSN 1742-​7371.
DOI
Abstract

Purpose: The usage of security and privacy sensitive systems on mobile devices, such as mobile banking, mobile credit cards, mobile ticketing, or mobile digital identities, has continuously risen in recent years. This development makes the protection of personal and security sensitive data on mobile devices more important than ever.

Design/methodology/approach: A common approach for the protection of sensitive data is to use additional hardware such as smart cards or secure elements. The communication between such dedicated hardware and back-end management systems uses strong cryptography. However, the data transfer between applications on the mobile device and so-called applets on the dedicated hardware is often either unencrypted (and interceptable by malicious software) or encrypted with static keys stored in applications.

Findings: To address this issue we present a solution for fine-grained secure application-to-applet communication based on Secure Remote Password (SRP-6a and SRP-5), an authenticated key agreement protocol, with a user-provided password at run-time.

Originality/value: By exploiting the Java Card cryptographic APIs and minor adaptations to the protocol, which do not affect the security, we are able to implement this scheme on Java Cards with reasonable computation time.

@article{bib:2015-hoelzl-ijpcc, title = {{A password-authenticated secure channel for App to Java Card applet communication}}, author = {Hölzl, Michael and Asnake, Endalkachew and Mayrhofer, René and Roland, Michael}, journal = {International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications}, volume = {11}, number = {4}, pages = {374--397}, publisher = {Emerald Group Publishing Limited}, doi = {10.1108/IJPCC-09-2015-0032}, issn = {1742-7371}, year = {2015}, month = NOV }
M. Roland, J. Langer, and R. Mayrhofer: “Managing the life cycle of Java Card applets in other Java virtual machines”, International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications 10, 3, pp. 291–​312, 2014. ISSN 1742-​7371.
DOIfulltext
Abstract

Purpose: Today, for developers, it is difficult to get access to an NFC secure element in current smart phones. Moreover, the security constraints of smartcards make in-circuit debugging of applications impractical. Therefore, it would be useful to have an environment that emulates a secure element for rapid prototyping and debugging. This paper addresses the design, implementation, performance and limitations of such an environment.

Design/methodology/approach: Our approach to such an environment is the emulation of Java Card applets on top of non-Java Card virtual machines (e.g. Android Dalvik VM) as this would facilitate the use of existing debugging tools. As the operation principle of the Java Card VM is based on persistent memory technology, the VM and applications running on top of it have a significantly different life-cycle compared to other Java VMs. We evaluate these differences and their impact on Java VM-based Java Card emulation. We compare possible strategies to overcome the problems caused by these differences, propose a possible solution and create a prototypical implementation in order to verify the practical feasibility of such an emulation environment.

Findings: While we found that the Java Card inbuilt persistent memory management is not available on other Java VMs, we present a strategy to model this persistence mechanism on other VMs in order to build a complete Java Card run-time environment on top of a non-Java Card VM. Our analysis of the performance degradation in a prototypical implementation caused by additional effort put into maintaining persistent application state revealed that the implementation of such an emulation environment is practically feasible.

Originality/value: This paper addresses the problem of emulating a complete Java Card run-time environment on top of non-Java Card virtual machines which could open and significantly ease the development of NFC secure element applications.

@article{bib:2014-roland-ijpcc, title = {{Managing the life cycle of Java Card applets in other Java virtual machines}}, author = {Roland, Michael and Langer, Josef and Mayrhofer, René}, journal = {International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications}, volume = {10}, number = {3}, pages = {291--312}, publisher = {Emerald Group Publishing Limited}, doi = {10.1108/IJPCC-06-2014-0036}, issn = {1742-7371}, year = {2014}, month = AUG }
M. Roland and J. Langer: “Comparison of the usability and security of NFC’s different operating modes in mobile devices”, e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik 130, 7, pp. 201–​206, 2013. ISSN 0932-​383X.
DOIfulltext
Abstract

This paper highlights the benefits and drawbacks of NFC’s different operating modes with regard to their usability and security. Based on an analysis of both traditional and new communication concepts for mobile NFC devices, their current availability and, specifically, the features to provide security are evaluated. The result of this evaluation is a comparison between the availability, the usability and the security of NFC’s different operating modes.

@article{bib:2013-roland-eui, title = {{Comparison of the usability and security of NFC's different operating modes in mobile devices}}, author = {Roland, Michael and Langer, Josef}, journal = {e \& i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik}, volume = {130}, number = {7}, pages = {201--206}, publisher = {Springer}, address = {Wien}, doi = {10.1007/s00502-013-0157-x}, issn = {0932-383X}, year = {2013}, month = NOV }
H. Witschnig, M. Roland, M. Gossar, and H. Enzinger: “Parameter characterisation and automatic impedance matching of 13.56 MHz NFC antennas”, e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik 126, 11, pp. 415–​422, 2009. ISSN 0932-​383X.
DOIfulltext
Abstract

The underlying paper and investigations deal with the main functionality and physical parameters of contactless smartcard and NFC (Near Field Communication) devices. The specific need of impedance matching for reader devices is pointed out in particular, as the correct matching represents a major performance indicator of the system. Therefore, in a first step, the dedicated parameters are analyzed for a reader device. Based on these insights, detailed analysis of the concept, the implementation and the verification of an automatic impedance matching circuit for NFC antennas with a frequency of 13.56 MHz is given. Besides an introduction to manual tuning and its issues, the fundamental components of an automatic tuning system are outlined. A lab-scaled prototype is built and demonstrated. Finally, the successful operation of this system is tested with several different antennas. Furthermore, the effects of detuning due to dynamic behavior are pointed out, characterizing the need for further investigations.

@article{bib:2009-witschnig-eui, title = {{Parameter characterisation and automatic impedance matching of 13.56 MHz NFC antennas}}, author = {Witschnig, Harald and Roland, Michael and Gossar, Martin and Enzinger, Harald}, journal = {e \& i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik}, volume = {126}, number = {11}, pages = {415--422}, publisher = {Springer}, address = {Wien}, doi = {10.1007/s00502-009-0693-6}, issn = {0932-383X}, year = {2009}, month = NOV }

Books

M. Roland: “Security Issues in Mobile NFC Devices”, T-Labs Series in Telecommunication Services, Springer, Cham, 2015. ISBN 978-​3-​319-​15487-​9.
Abstract

This work provides an assessment of the current state of near field communication (NFC) security, it reports on new attack scenarios, and offers concepts and solutions to overcome any unresolved issues. The work describes application-specific security aspects of NFC based on exemplary use-case scenarios and uses these to focus on the interaction with NFC tags and on card emulation. The current security architectures of NFC-enabled cellular phones are evaluated with regard to the identified security aspects.

@book{bib:2015-roland-thesis-book, title = {{Security Issues in Mobile NFC Devices}}, author = {Roland, Michael}, series = {T-Labs Series in Telecommunication Services}, publisher = {Springer}, address = {Cham}, doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-15488-6}, isbn = {978-3-319-15487-9}, year = {2015}, month = JAN }
J. Langer and M. Roland: “Anwendungen und Technik von Near Field Communication (NFC)”, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 2010. ISBN 978-​3-​642-​05496-​9.
Abstract

NFC ist eine systematische Weiterentwicklung von kontaktloser Smartcard- und Reader-Technologie. Das Buch “Anwendungen und Technik von NFC” ist das Standardwerk zur NFC-Technologie. Es bietet einen umfassenden Überblick über Grundlagen, Technik und Anwendungszenarien von NFC. Für Praxis und Ausbildung kann es sowohl als Einführung sowie als Grundlagen- und Nachschlagewerk dienen. Die Autoren stellen anhand der Grundlagen und der Technik die NFC-Technologie und die klassische RFID-Technologie einander gegenüber. Es werden der aktuelle Stand der Normung, die weiterführenden Spezifikationen und die Protokolle ausführlich anhand von zahlreichen Abbildungen erklärt. Besonderes Augenmerk wird auf die Integration von NFC in Mobiltelefone gelegt. Zahlreiche beispielhafte Anwendungen (z.B. Smart Poster, Zahlungsverkehr, Zutritt) geben einen praxisnahen Einblick in die Umsetzung der Technologie und das NFC-Ökosystem mit seiner Vielzahl von Anwendungsmöglichkeiten.

@book{bib:2010-langer-nfc-book, title = {{Anwendungen und Technik von Near Field Communication (NFC)}}, author = {Langer, Josef and Roland, Michael}, publisher = {Springer}, address = {Berlin Heidelberg}, doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-05497-6}, isbn = {978-3-642-05496-9}, year = {2010}, month = NOV }

Refereed papers

M. Pöll and M. Roland: “Automating the Quantitative Analysis of Reproducibility for Build Artifacts derived from the Android Open Source Project”, in WiSec ‘22: Proceedings of the 15th ACM Conference on Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks, San Antonio, TX, USA, ACM, pp. 6–​19, 2022.
Event
15th ACM Conference on Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks (ACM WiSec 2022)
San Antonio, TX, USA
16–19 May 2022
Abstract

This work proposes a modular automation toolchain to analyze current state and over-time changes of reproducibility of build artifacts derived from the Android Open Source Project (AOSP). While perfect bit-by-bit equality of binary artifacts would be a desirable goal to permit independent verification if binary build artifacts really are the result of building a specific state of source code, this form of reproducibility is often not (yet) achievable in practice. Certain complexities in the Android ecosystem make assessment of production firmware images particularly difficult. To overcome this, we introduce “accountable builds” as a form of reproducibility that allows for legitimate deviations from 100 percent bit-by-bit equality. Using our framework that builds AOSP in its native build system, automatically compares artifacts, and computes difference scores, we perform a detailed analysis of differences, identify typical accountable changes, and analyze current major issues leading to non-reproducibility and non-accountability. We find that pure AOSP itself builds mostly reproducible and that Project Treble helped through its separation of concerns. However, we also discover that Google’s published firmware images deviate from the claimed codebase (partially due to side-effects of Project Mainline).

badge-artifacts-evaluated-functional-v1_1.png badge-artifacts-available-v1_1.png badge-results-replicated-v1_1.png

@inproceedings{bib:2022-poell-wisec, title = {{Automating the Quantitative Analysis of Reproducibility for Build Artifacts derived from the Android Open Source Project}}, author = {Pöll, Manuel and Roland, Michael}, booktitle = {WiSec '22: Proceedings of the 15th ACM Conference on Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks}, location = {San Antonio, TX, USA}, pages = {6--19}, publisher = {ACM}, doi = {10.1145/3507657.3528537}, year = {2022}, month = MAY }
T. Höller, M. Roland, and R. Mayrhofer: “Analyzing inconsistencies in the Tor consensus”, in The 23rd International Conference on Information Integration and Web Intelligence (iiWAS2021), Linz, Austria, ACM, pp. 487–​496, 2021.
Event
23rd International Conference on Information Integration and Web Intelligence (iiWAS2021)
Linz, Austria
29 November – 01 December 2021
Abstract

Every distributed system needs some way to list its current participants. The Tor network’s consensus is one way of tackling this challenge. But creating a shared list of participants and their properties without a central authority is a challenging task, especially if the system is constantly targeted by state level attackers. This work carefully examines the Tor consensuses created in the last two years, identifies weaknesses that did already impact users and proposes improvements to strengthen the Tor consensus in the future. Our results show undocumented voting behavior by directory authorities and suspicious groups of relays that try to conceal the fact that they are all operated by the same entity.

@inproceedings{bib:2021-hoeller-iiwas, title = {{Analyzing inconsistencies in the Tor consensus}}, author = {Höller, Tobias and Roland, Michael and Mayrhofer, René}, booktitle = {The 23rd International Conference on Information Integration and Web Intelligence (iiWAS2021)}, location = {Linz, Austria}, pages = {487--496}, publisher = {ACM}, doi = {10.1145/3487664.3487793}, year = {2021}, month = NOV }
T. Höller, M. Roland, and R. Mayrhofer: “On the state of V3 onion services”, in Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2021 Workshop on Free and Open Communications on the Internet (FOCI ‘21), Virtual, ACM, pp. 50–​56, 2021.
Event
11th Workshop on Free and Open Communications on the Internet (FOCI ‘21)
Virtual
27 August 2021
Abstract

Tor onion services are a challenging research topic because they were designed to reveal as little metadata as possible which makes it difficult to collect information about them. In order to improve and extend privacy protecting technologies, it is important to understand how they are used in real world scenarios. We discuss the difficulties associated with obtaining statistics about V3 onion services and present a way to monitor V3 onion services in the current Tor network that enables us to derive statistically significant information about them without compromising the privacy of individual Tor users. This allows us to estimate the number of currently deployed V3 onion services along with interesting conclusions on how and why onion services are used.

@inproceedings{bib:2021-hoeller-foci, title = {{On the state of V3 onion services}}, author = {Höller, Tobias and Roland, Michael and Mayrhofer, René}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2021 Workshop on Free and Open Communications on the Internet (FOCI '21)}, location = {Virtual}, pages = {50--56}, publisher = {ACM}, doi = {10.1145/3473604.3474565}, year = {2021}, month = AUG }
T. Höller, T. Raab, M. Roland, and R. Mayrhofer: “On the feasibility of short-lived dynamic onion services”, in 2021 IEEE Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW), San Francisco, CA, USA, IEEE, pp. 25–​30, 2021.
Event
6th International Workshop on Traffic Measurements for Cybersecurity (WTMC 2021)
San Francisco, CA, USA
27 May 2021
Abstract

Tor onion services utilize the Tor network to enable incoming connections on a device without disclosing its network location. Decentralized systems with extended privacy requirements like metadata-avoiding messengers typically rely on onion services. However, a long-lived onion service address can itself be abused as identifying metadata. Replacing static onion services with dynamic short-lived onion services may by a way to avoid such metadata leakage. This work evaluates the feasibility of short-lived dynamically generated onion services in decentralized systems. We show, based on a detailed performance analysis of the onion service deployment process, that dynamic onion services are already feasible for peer-to-peer communication in certain scenarios.

@inproceedings{bib:2021-hoeller-wtmc, title = {{On the feasibility of short-lived dynamic onion services}}, author = {Höller, Tobias and Raab, Thomas and Roland, Michael and Mayrhofer, René}, booktitle = {2021 IEEE Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW)}, location = {San Francisco, CA, USA}, pages = {25--30}, publisher = {IEEE}, doi = {10.1109/SPW53761.2021.00012}, year = {2021}, month = MAY }
P. Hofer, M. Roland, P. Schwarz, M. Schwaighofer, and R. Mayrhofer: “Importance of different facial parts for face detection networks”, in 2021 9th IEEE International Workshop on Biometrics and Forensics (IWBF), Rome, Italy, IEEE, pp. 1–​6, 2021.
Event
9th IEEE International Workshop on Biometrics and Forensics (IWBF 2021)
Rome, Italy
06–07 May 2021
Abstract

Most state-of-the-art face detection algorithms are usually trained with full-face pictures, without any occlusions. The first novel contribution of this paper is an analysis of the accuracy of three off-the-shelf face detection algorithms (MTCNN, Retinaface, and DLIB) on occluded faces. In order to determine the importance of different facial parts, the face detection accuracy is evaluated in two settings: Firstly, we automatically modify the CFP dataset and remove different areas of each face: We overlay a grid over each face and remove one cell at a time. Similarly, we overlay a rectangle over the main landmarks of a face – eye(s), nose and mouth. Furthermore, we resemble a face mask by overlaying a rectangle starting from the bottom of the face. Secondly, we test the performance of the algorithms on people with real-world face masks. The second contribution of this paper is the discovery of a previously unknown behaviour of the widely used MTCNN face detection algorithm – if there is a face inside another face, MTCNN does not detect the larger face.

@inproceedings{bib:2021-hofer-iwbf, title = {{Importance of different facial parts for face detection networks}}, author = {Hofer, Philipp and Roland, Michael and Schwarz, Philipp and Schwaighofer, Martin and Mayrhofer, René}, booktitle = {2021 9th IEEE International Workshop on Biometrics and Forensics (IWBF)}, location = {Rome, Italy}, pages = {1--6}, publisher = {IEEE}, doi = {10.1109/IWBF50991.2021.9465087}, year = {2021}, month = MAY }
O. Mir, M. Roland, and R. Mayrhofer: “DAMFA: Decentralized Anonymous Multi-Factor Authentication”, in Proceedings of the 2nd ACM International Symposium on Blockchain and Secure Critical Infrastructure (BSCI ‘20), Taipei, Taiwan, ACM, pp. 10–​19, 2020.
Event
The 2nd ACM International Symposium on Blockchain and Secure Critical Infrastructure (BSCI 2020)
Taipei, Taiwan
05 October 2020
Abstract

Token-based authentication is usually applied to enable single-sign-on on the web. In current authentication schemes, users are required to interact with identity providers securely to set up authentication data during a registration phase and receive a token (credential) for future accesses to various services and applications. This type of interaction can make authentication schemes challenging in terms of security and usability. From a security point of view, one of the main threats is the compromisation of identity providers. An adversary who compromises the authentication data (password or biometric) stored with the identity provider can mount an offline dictionary attack. Furthermore, the identity provider might be able to track user activity and control sensitive user data. In terms of usability, users always need a trusted server to be online and available while authenticating to a service provider.

In this paper, we propose a new Decentralized Anonymous Multi-Factor Authentication (DAMFA) scheme where the process of user authentication no longer depends on a trusted third party (the identity provider). Also, service and identity providers do not gain access to sensitive user data and cannot track individual user activity. Our protocol allows service providers to authenticate users at any time without interacting with the identity provider.Our approach builds on a Threshold Oblivious Pseudorandom Function (TOPRF) to improve resistance to offline attacks and uses a distributed transaction ledger to improve usability. We demonstrate practicability of our proposed scheme through a prototype.

@inproceedings{bib:2020-mir-bsci, title = {{DAMFA: Decentralized Anonymous Multi-Factor Authentication}}, author = {Mir, Omid and Roland, Michael and Mayrhofer, René}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2nd ACM International Symposium on Blockchain and Secure Critical Infrastructure (BSCI '20)}, location = {Taipei, Taiwan}, pages = {10--19}, publisher = {ACM}, doi = {10.1145/3384943.3409417}, year = {2020}, month = OCT }
R. Mayrhofer, M. Roland, and T. Höller: “Poster: Towards an Architecture for Private Digital Authentication in the Physical World”, in Network and Distributed System Security Symposium (NDSS Symposium 2020), Posters, San Diego, CA, USA, 2020.
Event
Network and Distributed System Security Symposium (NDSS Symposium 2020)
San Diego, CA, USA
23–26 February 2020
Abstract

How can we use digital identity for authentication in the physical world without compromising user privacy? Enabling individuals to – for example – use public transport and other payment/ticketing applications, access computing resources on public terminals, or even cross country borders without carrying any form of physical identity document or trusted mobile device is an important open question. Moving towards such a device-free infrastructure-based authentication could be easily facilitated by centralized databases with full biometric records of all individuals, authenticating and therefore tracking people in all their interactions in both the digital and physical world. However, such centralized tracking does not seen compatible with fundamental human rights to data privacy. We therefore propose a fully decentralized approach to digital user authentication in the physical world, giving each individual better control over their interactions and data traces they leave.

In project Digidow, we assign each individual in the physical world with a personal identity agent (PIA) in the digital world, facilitating their interactions with purely digital or digitally mediated services in both worlds. We have two major issues to overcome. The first is a problem of massive scale, moving from current users of digital identity to the whole global population as the potential target group. The second is even more fundamental: by moving from trusted physical documents or devices and centralized databases to a fully decentralized and infrastructure-based approach, we remove the currently essential elements of trust. In this poster, we present a system architecture to enable trustworthy distributed authentication and a simple, specific scenario to benchmark an initial prototype that is currently under development. We hope to engage with the NDSS community to both present the problem statement and receive early feedback on the current architecture, additional scenarios and stakeholders, as well as international conditions for practical deployment.

@inproceedings{bib:2020-mayrhofer-ndss, title = {{Poster: Towards an Architecture for Private Digital Authentication in the Physical World}}, author = {Mayrhofer, René and Roland, Michael and Höller, Tobias}, booktitle = {Network and Distributed System Security Symposium (NDSS Symposium 2020), Posters}, location = {San Diego, CA, USA}, year = {2020}, month = FEB }
M. Hölzl, M. Roland, and R. Mayrhofer: “Real-world Identification for an Extensible and Privacy-preserving Mobile eID”, in Privacy and Identity Management. The Smart Revolution. Privacy and Identity 2017, Ispra, Italy, IFIP AICT, vol. 526/2018, Springer, pp. 354–​370, 2018.
Event
12th International IFIP Summer School on Privacy and Identity Management
Ispra, Italy
03–08 September 2017
Abstract

There is a broad range of existing electronic identity (eID) systems which provide methods to sign documents or authenticate to online services (e.g. governmental eIDs, FIDO). However, these solutions mainly focus on the validation of an identity to a web page. That is, they often miss proper techniques to use them as regular ID cards to digitally authenticate an eID holder to another physical person in the real world. We propose a mobile eID which provides such a functionality and enables extensibility for its use with numerous different public and private services (e.g. for loyalty programs, public transport tickets, student cards), while protecting the privacy of the eID holder. In this paper, we present a general architecture and efficient protocols for such a privacy-preserving mobile eID that allows identity validation in a similar fashion as regular ID cards and makes carrying around various physical cards unnecessary.

@inproceedings{bib:2017-hoelzl-ifipsc-post, title = {{Real-world Identification for an Extensible and Privacy-preserving Mobile eID}}, author = {Hölzl, Michael and Roland, Michael and Mayrhofer, René}, booktitle = {Privacy and Identity Management. The Smart Revolution. Privacy and Identity 2017}, series = {IFIP AICT}, volume = {526/2018}, location = {Ispra, Italy}, pages = {354--370}, publisher = {Springer}, doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-92925-5\_24}, year = {2018}, month = JUN }
M. Hölzl, M. Roland, O. Mir, and R. Mayrhofer: “Bridging the Gap in Privacy-Preserving Revocation: Practical and Scalable Revocation of Mobile eIDs”, in Proceedings of the ACM SAC Conference (SAC ‘18), Pau, France, ACM, pp. 1601–​1609, 2018.
Event
33rd ACM/SIGAPP Symposium On Applied Computing
Pau, France
09–13 April 2018
Abstract

Providing methods to anonymously validate the user’s identity is essential in many applications of electronic identity (eID) systems. A feasible approach to realize such a privacy-preserving eID is the usage of group signature protocols or pseudonym-based signatures. However, providing a revocation mechanism that preserves privacy is often the bottleneck for the scalability of such schemes. In order to bridge this gap between practicability and privacy, we propose a scalable and efficient revocation scheme suitable for smart cards in a mobile eID architecture. By using a pseudo-random function, we derive one-time revocation tokens for the revocation check and generate proofs of validity using a new method referred to as disposable dynamic accumulators. Our scheme thereby preserves unlinkability and anonymity of the eID holder even beyond revocation and does not require online connectivity to a trusted party for the verification and revocation check.

@inproceedings{bib:2017-hoelzl-sac, title = {{Bridging the Gap in Privacy-Preserving Revocation: Practical and Scalable Revocation of Mobile eIDs}}, author = {Hölzl, Michael and Roland, Michael and Mir, Omid and Mayrhofer, René}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the ACM SAC Conference (SAC '18)}, location = {Pau, France}, pages = {1601--1609}, publisher = {ACM}, doi = {10.1145/3167132.3167303}, year = {2018}, month = APR }
M. Hölzl, M. Roland, and R. Mayrhofer: “Extensibility in a Privacy-preserving eID: Towards a Mobile eID System for Real-world Identification and Offline Verification”, in IFIP Summer School 2017: Privacy and Identity Management – the Smart World Revolution (Pre-proceedings), Ispra, Italy, pp. 19:1–​16, 2017.
Event
12th International IFIP Summer School on Privacy and Identity Management
Ispra, Italy
03–08 September 2017
Abstract

There is a broad range of existing electronic identity (eID) systems which provide methods to sign documents or authenticate to online services (e.g.\ governmental eIDs, FIDO). However, these solutions mainly focus on the validation of an identity to a web page. That is, they lack in providing proper techniques to use them as regular ID cards to digitally authenticate an eID holder to another physical person in the real world. We envision a mobile eID which provides such a functionality and enables extensibility for its use with numerous different public and private services (e.g.\ for loyalty programs, public transport tickets, students cards), while protecting the privacy of the eID holder. In this paper, we present a general architecture and efficient protocols for such a privacy-preserving mobile eID that allows identity validation in a similar fashion as regular ID cards and makes carrying around various physical cards unnecessary.

@inproceedings{bib:2017-hoelzl-ifipsc-pre, title = {{Extensibility in a Privacy-preserving eID: Towards a Mobile eID System for Real-world Identification and Offline Verification}}, author = {Hölzl, Michael and Roland, Michael and Mayrhofer, René}, booktitle = {IFIP Summer School 2017: Privacy and Identity Management -- the Smart World Revolution (Pre-proceedings)}, location = {Ispra, Italy}, pages = {19:1--16}, year = {2017}, month = SEP }
M. Hölzl, M. Roland, and R. Mayrhofer: “An Extensible and Privacy-preserving Mobile eID System for Real-world Identification and Offline Verification”, in IFIP Summer School 2017: Privacy and Identity Management – the Smart World Revolution (Extended Abstracts), Ispra, Italy, 2017.
Event
12th International IFIP Summer School on Privacy and Identity Management
Ispra, Italy
03–08 September 2017
Abstract

There is a broad range of existing electronic identity (eID) systems which provide methods to sign documents or authenticate to online services (e.g. governmental eIDs, FIDO). However, these solutions mainly focus on the validation of an identity to a backend infrastructure. That is, they lack in providing proper techniques to use them as regular ID cards to digitally authenticate an eID holder to another physical person in the real world. We envision a mobile eID which provides such a functionality and enables extensibility for its use with numerous different public and private services (e.g. for loyalty programs, public transport tickets, students cards), while protecting the privacy of the eID holder. In this paper, we present a general architecture for such a privacy-preserving mobile eID that allows identity validation in a similar fashion as regular ID cards and makes carrying around various physical cards unnecessary.

@inproceedings{bib:2017-hoelzl-ifipsc-abstract, title = {{An Extensible and Privacy-preserving Mobile eID System for Real-world Identification and Offline Verification}}, author = {Hölzl, Michael and Roland, Michael and Mayrhofer, René}, booktitle = {IFIP Summer School 2017: Privacy and Identity Management -- the Smart World Revolution (Extended Abstracts)}, location = {Ispra, Italy}, year = {2017}, month = SEP }
M. Hölzl, M. Roland, and R. Mayrhofer: “Real-World Identification: Towards a Privacy-Aware Mobile eID for Physical and Offline Verification”, in Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing & Multimedia (MoMM2016), Singapore, ACM, pp. 280–​283, 2016.
Event
14th International Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing & Multimedia (MoMM2016)
Singapore
28–30 November 2016
Abstract

There are many systems that provide users with an electronic identity (eID) to sign documents or authenticate to online services (e.g. governmental eIDs, OpenID). However, current solutions lack in providing proper techniques to use them as regular ID cards that digitally authenticate their holders to another physical person in the real world. We envision a fully mobile eID which provides such functionality in a privacy-preserving manner, fulfills requirements for governmental identities with high security demands (such as driving licenses, or passports) and can be used in the private domain (e.g. as loyalty cards). In this paper, we present potential use cases for such a flexible and privacy-preserving mobile eID and discuss the concept of privacy-preserving attribute queries. Furthermore, we formalize necessary functional, mobile, security, and privacy requirements, and present a brief overview of potential techniques to cover all of them.

@inproceedings{bib:2016-hoelzl-momm, title = {{Real-World Identification: Towards a Privacy-Aware Mobile eID for Physical and Offline Verification}}, author = {Hölzl, Michael and Roland, Michael and Mayrhofer, René}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing \& Multimedia (MoMM2016)}, location = {Singapore}, pages = {280--283}, publisher = {ACM}, doi = {10.1145/3007120.3007158}, year = {2016}, month = NOV }
M. Hölzl, E. Asnake, R. Mayrhofer, and M. Roland: “Mobile Application to Java Card Applet Communication using a Password-authenticated Secure Channel”, in Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing & Multimedia (MoMM2014), Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ACM, pp. 147–​156, 2014.
Event
12th International Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing & Multimedia (MoMM2014)
Kaohsiung, Taiwan
08–10 December 2014
Abstract

With the increasing popularity of security and privacy sensitive systems on mobile devices, such as mobile banking, mobile credit cards, mobile ticketing or mobile digital identities, new challenges emerged for the protection of personal data. In new approaches, mobile applications tend to use additional hardware, such as smart cards or secure elements, to address these challenges. The communication between such dedicated hardware and back-end management systems uses strong cryptography. However, the data transfer between applications on the mobile device and so-called applets on the dedicated hardware is often either unencrypted (and interceptable by malicious software) or encrypted with static keys stored in applications. To address this issue we present a solution for fine-grained secure application-to-applet communication based on Secure Remote Password (SRP-6a), an authenticated key agreement protocol, with a user-provided password at run-time. By exploiting the Java Card cryptographic API and minor adaptations to the protocol, which do not affect the security, we were able to implement this scheme on Java Cards with reasonable computation time.

@inproceedings{bib:2014-hoelzl-momm, title = {{Mobile Application to Java Card Applet Communication using a Password-authenticated Secure Channel}}, author = {Hölzl, Michael and Asnake, Endalkachew and Mayrhofer, René and Roland, Michael}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing \& Multimedia (MoMM2014)}, location = {Kaohsiung, Taiwan}, pages = {147--156}, publisher = {ACM}, doi = {10.1145/2684103.2684128}, year = {2014}, month = DEC }
M. Hölzl, R. Mayrhofer, and M. Roland: “Requirements for an Open Ecosystem for Embedded Tamper Resistant Hardware on Mobile Device”, in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing & Multimedia (MoMM2013), Vienna, Austria, ACM, pp. 249–​252, 2013.
Event
11th International Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing & Multimedia (MoMM2013)
Vienna, Austria
02–04 December 2013
Abstract

Insufficient security and privacy on mobile devices have made it difficult to utilize sensitive systems like mobile banking, mobile credit cards, mobile ticketing or mobile passports. Solving these challenges in security and privacy, could result in better mobility and a higher level of confidence for the end-user services in such systems. Our approach for a higher security and privacy level on mobile devices introduces an open ecosystem for tamper resistant hardware. Big advantages of these modules are the protection against unauthorized access and the on-device cryptographic operations they can perform. In this paper, we analyse the requirements and performance restrictions of these hardware modules and present an interface concept for a tight integration of their security features.

@inproceedings{bib:2013-hoelzl-momm, title = {{Requirements for an Open Ecosystem for Embedded Tamper Resistant Hardware on Mobile Device}}, author = {Hölzl, Michael and Mayrhofer, René and Roland, Michael}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing \& Multimedia (MoMM2013)}, location = {Vienna, Austria}, pages = {249--252}, publisher = {ACM}, doi = {10.1145/2536853.2536947}, year = {2013}, month = DEC }
M. Roland, J. Langer, and R. Mayrhofer: “(Ab)using foreign VMs: Running Java Card Applets in non-Java Card Virtual Machines”, in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing & Multimedia (MoMM2013), Vienna, Austria, ACM, pp. 286–​292, 2013.
Event
11th International Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing & Multimedia (MoMM2013)
Vienna, Austria
02–04 December 2013
Abstract

Creating Java Card applications for Near Field Communication’s card emulation mode requires access to a secure smartcard chip (the secure element). Today, even for development purposes, it is difficult to get access to the secure element in most current smart phones. Therefore, it would be useful to have an environment that emulates a secure element for rapid prototyping and debugging. Our approach to such an environment is emulation of Java Card applets on top of non-Java Card virtual machines (e.g. Android’s Dalvik VM). However, providing a Java Card run-time environment on top of another Java virtual machine faces one big problem: The Java Card virtual machine’s operation principle is based on persistent memory technology. As a result, the VM and the applications that run on top of it have a significantly different life-cycle compared to other Java VMs. Based on specific scenarios for secure element emulators for the Android platform, we evaluate these differences and their impact on Java VM-based Java Card emulation. Further, we propose possible solutions to the problems that arise from these differences in the life-cycles.

@inproceedings{bib:2013-roland-momm, title = {{(Ab)using foreign VMs: Running Java Card Applets in non-Java Card Virtual Machines}}, author = {Roland, Michael and Langer, Josef and Mayrhofer, René}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing \& Multimedia (MoMM2013)}, location = {Vienna, Austria}, pages = {286--292}, publisher = {ACM}, doi = {10.1145/2536853.2536870}, year = {2013}, month = DEC }
M. Roland: “Debugging and Rapid Prototyping of NFC Secure Element Applications”, in Mobile Computing, Applications and Services (MobiCASE 2013), Paris, France, LNICST, vol. 130/2014, Springer, pp. 298–​313, 2013.
Event
Workshop on the Near Field Communication for Mobile Applications
Paris, France
07 November 2013
Abstract

The ecosystem behind secure elements is complex and prevents average developers from creating secure element applications. In this paper we introduce concepts to overcome these issues. We develop two scenarios for open platforms emulating a secure element for the Android platform. Such an open emulator can be used for debugging and rapid prototyping of secure element applications. Moreover, by trading the secure element’s security and trust for openness, such a platform can be used as a replacement for the secure element for long-term testing and for showcasing of applications.

@inproceedings{bib:2013-roland-mobicase, title = {{Debugging and Rapid Prototyping of NFC Secure Element Applications}}, author = {Roland, Michael}, booktitle = {Mobile Computing, Applications and Services (MobiCASE 2013)}, series = {LNICST}, volume = {130/2014}, location = {Paris, France}, pages = {298--313}, publisher = {Springer}, doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-05452-0\_28}, year = {2013}, month = NOV }
M. Roland and J. Langer: “Cloning Credit Cards: A combined pre-play and downgrade attack on EMV Contactless”, in 7th USENIX Workshop on Offensive Technologies, Washington, DC, USA, USENIX, 2013.
Event
7th USENIX Workshop on Offensive Technologies (WOOT ‘13)
Washington, DC, USA
13 August 2013
Abstract

Recent roll-outs of contactless payment infrastructures – particularly in Austria and Germany – have raised concerns about the security of contactless payment cards and Near Field Communication (NFC). There are well-known attack scenarios like relay attacks and skimming of credit card numbers. However, banks and credit card schemes often mitigate these attacks. They explain that attacks are impractical (e.g. in a relay attack an attacker needs to have RF access to a victim’s card while performing a payment transaction) or even impossible (e.g. skimmed data does not contain the dynamic authorization codes that are normally required to perform a payment transaction). This paper introduces an attack scenario on EMV contactless payment cards that permits an attacker to create functional clones of a card that contain the necessary credit card data as well as pre-played authorization codes. The card clones can then be used to perform a limited number of EMV Mag-Stripe transactions at any EMV contactless payment terminal.

@inproceedings{bib:2013-roland-woot, title = {{Cloning Credit Cards: A combined pre-play and downgrade attack on EMV Contactless}}, author = {Roland, Michael and Langer, Josef}, booktitle = {7th USENIX Workshop on Offensive Technologies}, location = {Washington, DC, USA}, publisher = {USENIX}, year = {2013}, month = AUG }
M. Roland, J. Langer, and J. Scharinger: “Applying Relay Attacks to Google Wallet”, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Near Field Communication (NFC 2013), Zurich, Switzerland, IEEE, 2013.
Event
5th International Workshop on Near Field Communication (NFC 2013)
Zurich, Switzerland
05 February 2013
Abstract

The recent emergence of Near Field Communication (NFC) enabled smartphones resulted in an increasing interest in NFC security. Several new attack scenarios, using NFC devices either as attack plattform or as device under attack, have been discovered. One of them is the software-based relay attack. In this paper we evaluate the feasibility of the software-based relay attack in an existing mobile contactless payment system. We give an in-depth analysis of Google Wallet’s credit card payment functionality. We describe our prototypical relay system that we used to sucessfully mount the software-based relay attack on Google Wallet. We discuss the practicability and threat potential of the attack and provide several possible workarounds. Finally, we analyze Google’s approach to solving the issue of software-based relay attacks in their recent releases of Google Wallet.

@inproceedings{bib:2013-roland-nfc, title = {{Applying Relay Attacks to Google Wallet}}, author = {Roland, Michael and Langer, Josef and Scharinger, Josef}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Near Field Communication (NFC 2013)}, location = {Zurich, Switzerland}, publisher = {IEEE}, doi = {10.1109/NFC.2013.6482441}, year = {2013}, month = FEB }
M. Roland: “Software Card Emulation in NFC-enabled Mobile Phones: Great Advantage or Security Nightmare?”, in 4th International Workshop on Security and Privacy in Spontaneous Interaction and Mobile Phone Use, Newcastle, UK, 6 pages, 2012.
fulltextslides
Event
4th International Workshop on Security and Privacy in Spontaneous Interaction and Mobile Phone Use
Newcastle, UK
18 June 2012
Abstract

Software card emulation is a new approch to advance the interoperability of NFC with legacy contactless smartcard systems. It has been first introduced to NFC-enabled mobile phones by Research In Motion (RIM) on their BlackBerry platform. Software card emulation aims at opening and simplifying the complex and tightly controlled card emulation functionality. While this form of card emulation, that gets rid of the secure element (a device tightly controlled by the ``big players''), is a great chance for development of innovative NFC applications, it potentially makes card emulation less secure and paves the way for interesting attack scenarios. This paper evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of software card emulation based on existing application scenarios and recent research results.

@inproceedings{bib:2012-roland-iwssi-spmu, title = {{Software Card Emulation in NFC-enabled Mobile Phones: Great Advantage or Security Nightmare?}}, author = {Roland, Michael}, booktitle = {4th International Workshop on Security and Privacy in Spontaneous Interaction and Mobile Phone Use}, location = {Newcastle, UK}, pages = {--6}, year = {2012}, month = JUN }
M. Roland, J. Langer, and J. Scharinger: “Relay Attacks on Secure Element-enabled Mobile Devices: Virtual Pickpocketing Revisited”, in Information Security and Privacy Research, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, IFIP AICT, vol. 376/2012, Springer, pp. 1–​12, 2012.
Event
27th IFIP TC 11 International Information Security and Privacy Conference (SEC 2012)
Heraklion, Crete, Greece
04–06 June 2012
Abstract

Near Field Communication’s card emulation mode is a way to combine smartcards with a mobile phone. Relay attack scenarios are well-known for contactless smartcards. In the past, relay attacks have only been considered for the case, where an attacker has physical proximity to an NFC-enabled mobile phone. However, a mobile phone introduces a significantly different threat vector. A mobile phone’s permanent connectivity to a global network and the possibility to install arbitrary applications permit a significantly improved relay scenario. This paper presents a relay attack scenario where the attacker no longer needs physical proximity to the phone. Instead, simple relay software needs to be distributed to victims' mobile devices. This publication describes this relay attack scenario in detail and assesses its feasibility based on measurement results.

@inproceedings{bib:2012-roland-ifipsec, title = {{Relay Attacks on Secure Element-enabled Mobile Devices: Virtual Pickpocketing Revisited}}, author = {Roland, Michael and Langer, Josef and Scharinger, Josef}, booktitle = {Information Security and Privacy Research}, series = {IFIP AICT}, volume = {376/2012}, location = {Heraklion, Crete, Greece}, pages = {1--12}, publisher = {Springer}, doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-30436-1\_1}, year = {2012}, month = JUN }
M. Roland, J. Langer, and J. Scharinger: “Practical Attack Scenarios on Secure Element-enabled Mobile Devices”, in Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Near Field Communication (NFC 2012), Helsinki, Finland, IEEE, pp. 19–​24, 2012.
Event
4th International Workshop on Near Field Communication (NFC 2012)
Helsinki, Finland
13 March 2012
Abstract

Near Field Communication’s card emulation mode is a way to put virtual smartcards into mobile phones. A recently launched application is Google Wallet. Google Wallet turns a phone into a credit card, a prepaid card and a tool to collect gift certificates and discounts. Card emulation mode uses dedicated smartcard chips, which are considered to fulfill high security standards. Therefore, card emulation mode is also considered to be safe and secure. However, an NFC-enabled mobile phone introduces a significantly different threat vector. Especially a mobile phone’s permanent connectivity to a global network and the possibility to install arbitrary applications onto smart phones open up for several new attack scenarios. This paper gives an overview of the new risks imposed by mobile connectivity and untrusted mobile phone applications. The various APIs for secure element access on different mobile phone platforms and their access control mechanisms are analyzed. The security aspects of mobile phones are explained. Finally, two practical attack scenarios, a method to perform a denial of service (DoS) attack against a secure element and a method to remotely use the applications on a victims secure element without the victim’s knowledge, are highlighted.

@inproceedings{bib:2012-roland-nfc, title = {{Practical Attack Scenarios on Secure Element-enabled Mobile Devices}}, author = {Roland, Michael and Langer, Josef and Scharinger, Josef}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Near Field Communication (NFC 2012)}, location = {Helsinki, Finland}, pages = {19--24}, publisher = {IEEE}, doi = {10.1109/NFC.2012.10}, year = {2012}, month = MAR }
M. Roland, J. Langer, and J. Scharinger: “Security Vulnerabilities of the NDEF Signature Record Type”, in Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Near Field Communication (NFC 2011), Hagenberg, Austria, IEEE, pp. 65–​70, 2011.
Event
3rd International Workshop on Near Field Communication (NFC 2011)
Hagenberg, Austria
22 February 2011
Abstract

The NFC Forum has released a first candidate for their Signature Record Type Definition. This specification adds digital signatures to the NFC Data Exchange Format (NDEF), which is a standardized format for storing formatted data on NFC (Near Field Communication) tags and for transporting data across a peer-to-peer links between NFC devices. With an increasing number of applications of the NFC and NDEF technology, more and more security threats became apparent. The signature record type is supposed to increase security for NDEF application by providing authenticity and integrity to the NDEF data. This paper takes a close look on the recently published Signature Record Type Definition and discusses its various security aspects. First, we introduce the signature record type and its usage. After that, we analyze the security aspects of the current signature method. Finally, we disclose multiple security vulnerabilities of the current Signature Record Type Definition and propose measures to avoid them.

@inproceedings{bib:2011-roland-nfc, title = {{Security Vulnerabilities of the NDEF Signature Record Type}}, author = {Roland, Michael and Langer, Josef and Scharinger, Josef}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Near Field Communication (NFC 2011)}, location = {Hagenberg, Austria}, pages = {65--70}, publisher = {IEEE}, doi = {10.1109/NFC.2011.9}, year = {2011}, month = FEB }
M. Roland, J. Langer, M. Bogner, and F. Wiesinger: “NFC im Automobil: Software bringt Ökonomie und braucht Sicherheit”, in L. Höfler, J. Kastner, T. Kern, and G. Zauner (Eds.): Energieeffiziente Mobilität, Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologie, Shaker, Aachen, pp. 112–​119, 2010. ISBN 978-​3-​8322-​9561-​5.
Abstract

Motivation: Die Kraftfahrzeugnutzung nimmt kontinuierlich zu. Während sich dies einerseits positiv auf die Wirtschaft und die Mobilität der Bevölkerung auswirkt, kommt es durch den vermehrten Betrieb der Kraftfahrzeuge zu einem steigenden Energie- und Rohstoffverbrauch und zu einer zunehmenden Umweltbelastung. Diesen Problemen wird durch technologische Entwicklungen, wie z.B. bessere Antriebs- und Abgaskonzepte, entgegengewirkt. Eine Vielzahl an Elektronik- und Softwarekomponenten optimiert heute die verschiedensten Prozesse innerhalb des Automobils. Jedoch geben aktuelle Forschungsergebnisse und Medienberichte Grund zur Besorgnis: Während die Fahrzeugelektronik wesentlich zur Effizienzsteigerung der Kraftfahrzeuge beiträgt, eröffnet diese auch viele Angriffsflächen für Attacken gegen das Automobil, seine Insassen und den Umgebungsverkehr. Durch die weitere Vernetzung werden auch diese Angriffsflächen erweitert.

Ergebnisse: Bei einer zukünftigen Vernetzung des Automobils mit dem Internet könnten NFC-Mobiltelefone eine bedeutende Rolle spielen. Zum einen eröffnet die enge Bindung zwischen dem Benutzer und seinem Mobiltelefon ein großes potential für neue Anwendungen. Zum anderen ermöglicht die Near Field Communication (NFC) Technologie den einfachen Aufbau und die Sicherung der Übertragungskanäle. Zukunftsträchtige Anwendungen sind der Einsatz des Mobiltelefons als Fahrzeugschlüssel, die Personalisierung von Fahrzeugeinstellungen und die gesicherte Übertragung von Fahrinformationen an Verkehrsleitsysteme und Pannenhelfer.

Schlussfolgerung: Durch die NFC-Technologie können viele Vorgänge rund um das Automobil ökonomischer, energieeffizienter und benutzerfreundlicher gestaltet werden. Allerdings öffnen sich durch die Vernetzung des Mobiltelefons mit dem Computersystem des Automobils auch neue Angriffsmöglichkeiten. Aus diesem Grund sind die Betrachtung der Sicherheitsaspekte und die Beseitigung von Sicherheitsrisiken wesentliche Voraussetzungen für die Umsetzung der betrachteten effizienzsteigernden Maßnahmen. Die NFC-Technologie eine vielversprechende Schlüsseltechnologie, die bei der zuverlässigen Realisierung sicherheitskritischer Mobiltelefonapplikationen mitwirken kann.

@inbook{bib:2010-roland-emob, title = {{NFC im Automobil: Software bringt Ökonomie und braucht Sicherheit}}, author = {Roland, Michael and Langer, Josef and Bogner, Michael and Wiesinger, Franz}, editor = {Höfler, Leonhard and Kastner, Johann and Kern, Thomas and Zauner, Gerald}, booktitle = {Energieeffiziente Mobilität, Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologie}, pages = {112--119}, publisher = {Shaker}, address = {Aachen}, isbn = {978-3-8322-9561-5}, year = {2010}, month = NOV }
J. Langer and M. Roland: “Anwendungen der Near Field Communication Technologie und deren Nutzung in Mobiltelefonen”, in Wireless Communication and Information: Car to Car, Sensor Networks and Location Based Services, Berlin, Germany, Hülsbusch, Boizenburg, pp. 75–​84, 2010. ISBN 978-​3-​940317-​81-​0.
fulltext
Event
Wireless Communication and Information: Car to Car, Sensor Networks and Location Based Services (WCI 2010)
Berlin, Germany
15 October 2010
Abstract

NFC – Near Field Communication – ist eine kontaktlose Übertragungstechnologie, die zukünftig in Mobiltelefonen integriert werden soll. Die Übertragungsdistanzen betragen wenige Zentimeter. Mit einem NFC Telefon können kontaktlose Chipkarten gelesen und beschrieben werden. Gleichzeitig kann das NFC Gerät auch kontaktlose Chipkarten emulieren, um darin Daten – wie eine elektronische Geldbörse, Fahrkarten, Schlüssel – sicher zu verwahren. Externe Lesegeräte sowie die Telefonsoftware selbst können auf diese emulierte Chipkarte zugreifen und bei Vorweisen von Berechtigungen die Daten manipulieren. In diesem Beitrag werden verschiedene Anwendungen der NFC Technologie vorgestellt und die Implementierungen des NFC Feldversuches an der FH Hagenberg beschrieben. Weiters erfolgt eine Bewertung der Ergebnisse und die Analyse der Befragungen der Teilnehmer des Feldversuches.

@inproceedings{bib:2010-langer-wci, title = {{Anwendungen der Near Field Communication Technologie und deren Nutzung in Mobiltelefonen}}, author = {Langer, Josef and Roland, Michael}, booktitle = {Wireless Communication and Information: Car to Car, Sensor Networks and Location Based Services}, location = {Berlin, Germany}, pages = {75--84}, publisher = {Hülsbusch}, address = {Boizenburg}, isbn = {978-3-940317-81-0}, year = {2010}, month = OCT }
M. Roland and J. Langer: “Digital Signature Records for the NFC Data Exchange Format”, in Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Near Field Communication (NFC 2010), Monaco, IEEE, pp. 71–​76, 2010.
Event
2nd International Workshop on Near Field Communication (NFC 2010)
Monaco
20 April 2010
Abstract

The NFC Data Exchange Format (NDEF) is a standardized format for storing formatted data on NFC (Near Field Communication) tags and for transporting data across a peer-to-peer NFC link. Through NDEF and its various record types, events can be triggered on an NFC device by simply touching an NFC-enabled object. The number of use cases and real applications around NFC and NDEF technology increases continuously. However, existing applications provide hardly any protection against (malicious) manipulation of NDEF data. Digital signatures are a means of providing authenticity and integrity of NDEF data. Therefore, the NFC Forum – which is responsible for the specification of data formats, protocols and applications in regard to the NFC technology – is working on adding digital signatures to their NDEF format. While their signature record type is still in draft status and has not been released to the public, this paper discusses the various aspects of digitally signing NDEF records. First, we introduce the readers to the NFC Data Exchange Format, its use cases and its potential security threats. After that, we describe the potential of digital signatures for NDEF messages. Finally, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various ways to digitally sign an NDEF message.

@inproceedings{bib:2010-roland-nfc, title = {{Digital Signature Records for the NFC Data Exchange Format}}, author = {Roland, Michael and Langer, Josef}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Near Field Communication (NFC 2010)}, location = {Monaco}, pages = {71--76}, publisher = {IEEE}, doi = {10.1109/NFC.2010.10}, year = {2010}, month = APR }
M. Roland, C. Saminger, and J. Langer: “Packet Sniffer for the Physical Layer of the Single Wire Protocol”, in FH Science Day 2008, Linz, Austria, Shaker, Aachen, pp. 34–​41, 2008. ISBN 978-​3-​8322-​7643-​0.
fulltextslides
Event
FH Science Day 2008
Linz, Austria
06 November 2008
Abstract

The Single Wire Protocol (SWP, ETSI TS 102 613) is intended as direct interface between a mobile phone’s SIM card (UICC) and the mobile phone’s contactless front-end (CLF). The SWP’s final technical specification has just been released. The first devices implementing this communication protocol, mainly in its draft versions, are already in production. As a consequence there will be a demand for a test suite implementing a reference design and test methods for both the SWP master and the SWP slave. With communication protocols it is usually important to debug communication problems between multiple devices. One way to trace and decode the transferred data packets are packet sniffers. These systems contain hardware components and software implementations to wiretap and analyze the physical interface of the connection, to capture the data and to decode the packets into human readable information. The SWP uses a single wire for full-duplex communication between one master and one slave device. While master-to-slave data transfers take place in the voltage domain, slave-to-master data transfers take place in the current domain. In a first step, this paper discusses approaches to intercept the communication on the SWP’s data wire without influencing the actual communication.

The information tapped from the SWP’s data wire is still difficult to be read by hand. Thus, in a second step, a method for retrieving the state of the single wire interface is developed. Moreover, this paper gives an overview on how to decode the data link layer communication from the intercepted data streams.

@inproceedings{bib:2008-roland-fhsd, title = {{Packet Sniffer for the Physical Layer of the Single Wire Protocol}}, author = {Roland, Michael and Saminger, Christian and Langer, Josef}, booktitle = {FH Science Day 2008}, location = {Linz, Austria}, pages = {34--41}, publisher = {Shaker}, address = {Aachen}, isbn = {978-3-8322-7643-0}, year = {2008}, month = NOV }
M. Roland, H. Witschnig, E. Merlin, and C. Saminger: “Automatic Impedance Matching for 13.56 MHz NFC Antennas”, in Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing, Graz, Austria, IEEE, pp. 288–​291, 2008.
Event
6th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP 2008)
Graz, Austria
23–25 July 2008
Abstract

This paper deals with the concept, the implementation and the verification of an automatic impedance matching circuit for NFC antennas with a frequency of 13.56 MHz. Besides an introduction to manual tuning and its issues, the fundamental components of an automatic tuning system are outlined. A lab-scaled prototype is built and demonstrated. In the end, the successful operation of this system is tested with several different antennas.

@inproceedings{bib:2008-roland-csndsp, title = {{Automatic Impedance Matching for 13.56 MHz NFC Antennas}}, author = {Roland, Michael and Witschnig, Harald and Merlin, Erich and Saminger, Christian}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing}, location = {Graz, Austria}, pages = {288--291}, publisher = {IEEE}, doi = {10.1109/CSNDSP.2008.4610705}, year = {2008}, month = JUL }

Proceedings

R. Mayrhofer, M. Roland, D. Gunduz, B. Jalaian, M. Kurz, B. Moser, Y. E. Sagduyu, Y. Shi, G. Stantchev, M. Maaß, and Y. Zheng (Eds.): “WiseML ‘20: Proceedings of the 2nd ACM Workshop on Wireless Security and Machine Learning”, Linz (Virtual Event), Austria, ACM, 2020. ISBN 978-​1-​4503-​8007-​2.
DOIWiseML 2020
Event
2nd ACM Workshop on Wireless Security and Machine Learning (WiseML 2020)
Linz (Virtual Event), Austria
13 July 2020
Abstract

We are very pleased to welcome you to the 2nd ACM Workshop on Wireless Security and Machine Learning. This year’s WiseML is a virtual workshop and we are both excited to try out this workshop format and regretful not to be able to welcome you in the beautiful city of Linz, Austria, due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. ACM WiseML 2020 continues to be the premier venue to bring together members of the AI/ML, privacy, security, wireless communications and networking communities from around the world, and to offer them the opportunity to share their latest research findings in these emerging and critical areas, as well as to exchange ideas and foster research collaborations, in order to further advance the state-of-the-art in security techniques, architectures, and algorithms for AI/ML in wireless communications. The program will be presented online in a single track. WiseML 2020 will be open at no extra cost to everyone and we are trying out new formats such as a mixture of live streams, pre-recorded talks, and interactive Q/A sessions.

@proceedings{bib:2020-mayrhofer-wiseml-proc, title = {{WiseML '20: Proceedings of the 2nd ACM Workshop on Wireless Security and Machine Learning}}, editor = {Mayrhofer, René and Roland, Michael and Gunduz, Deniz and Jalaian, Brian and Kurz, Marc and Moser, Bernhard and Sagduyu, Yalin E. and Shi, Yi and Stantchev, George and Maaß, Max and Zheng, Yao}, location = {Linz (Virtual Event), Austria}, publisher = {ACM}, doi = {10.1145/3395352}, isbn = {978-1-4503-8007-2}, year = {2020}, month = JUL }
R. Mayrhofer, M. Roland, M. Hollick, W. Lou, M. Maaß, and Y. Zheng (Eds.): “WiSec ‘20: Proceedings of the 13th ACM Conference on Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks”, Linz (Virtual Event), Austria, ACM, 2020. ISBN 978-​1-​4503-​8006-​5.
Event
13th ACM Conference on Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks (ACM WiSec 2020)
Linz (Virtual Event), Austria
08–10 July 2020
Abstract

We are very pleased to welcome you to the 13th ACM Conference on Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks. This year’s WiSec marks the first virtual WiSec conference and we are both excited to try out this conference format and regretful to not be able to welcome you in the beautiful city of Linz, Austria, due to the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. ACM WiSec 2020 continues to be the premier venue for research dedicated to all aspects of security and privacy in wireless and mobile networks, their systems, and their applications. The program will be presented online in a single track, along with a poster and demonstration session. WiSec 2020 will be open at no extra cost to everyone and we are trying out new formats such as a mixture of live streams, pre-recorded talks, and interactive Q/A sessions.

@proceedings{bib:2020-mayrhofer-wisec-proc, title = {{WiSec '20: Proceedings of the 13th ACM Conference on Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks}}, editor = {Mayrhofer, René and Roland, Michael and Hollick, Matthias and Lou, Wenjing and Maaß, Max and Zheng, Yao}, location = {Linz (Virtual Event), Austria}, publisher = {ACM}, doi = {10.1145/3395351}, isbn = {978-1-4503-8006-5}, year = {2020}, month = JUL }
C. Holzmann, R. Mayrhofer, J. Häkkilä, E. Rukzio, and M. Roland (Eds.): “Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia (MUM ‘15)”, Linz, Austria, ACM, 2015. ISBN 978-​1-​4503-​3605-​5.
DOIMUM 2015
Event
14th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia (MUM 2015)
Linz, Austria
30 November – 02 December 2015
@proceedings{bib:2015-holzmann-mum-proc, title = {{Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia (MUM '15)}}, editor = {Holzmann, Clemens and Mayrhofer, René and Häkkilä, Jonna and Rukzio, Enrico and Roland, Michael}, location = {Linz, Austria}, publisher = {ACM}, doi = {10.1145/2836041}, isbn = {978-1-4503-3605-5}, year = {2015}, month = DEC }
J. Langer, T. Tuikka, F. Michahelles, S. Miranda, W. Jacak, S. Grünberger, M. Roland, and C. Saminger (Eds.): “Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Near Field Communication (NFC 2011)”, Hagenberg, Austria, IEEE, 2011. ISBN 978-​0-​7695-​4327-​7.
Event
3rd International Workshop on Near Field Communication (NFC 2011)
Hagenberg, Austria
22 February 2011
@proceedings{bib:2011-langer-nfc-proc, title = {{Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Near Field Communication (NFC 2011)}}, editor = {Langer, Josef and Tuikka, Tuomo and Michahelles, Florian and Miranda, Serge and Jacak, Witold and Grünberger, Stefan and Roland, Michael and Saminger, Christian}, location = {Hagenberg, Austria}, publisher = {IEEE}, isbn = {978-0-7695-4327-7}, year = {2011}, month = FEB }

Theses

M. Roland: “Security Issues in Mobile NFC Devices”, Ph.D. thesis, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Department of Computational Perception, Linz, Austria, 2013.
slidesJKU
Abstract

The recent emergence of Near Field Communication (NFC) enabled smart phones lead to an increasing interest in NFC technology and its applications by equipment manufacturers, service providers, developers, and end-users. Nevertheless, frequent media reports about security and privacy issues of electronic passports, contactless credit cards, asset tracking systems, NFC-enabled mobile phones, and proprietary contactless technologies suggest that NFC is a potentially unsafe technology whose main beneficiaries are thieves. While these weaknesses are often bound to specific applications and products, they boost the fear that NFC technology as a whole is dangerous, threatens our privacy and helps identity theft and fraud. In order to defend their own products and services, manufacturers and service providers often position themselves on the opposite extreme, stating that their products and services incorporate sufficient countermeasures.

This thesis' aim is to assess the actual state of NFC security, to discover new attack scenarios and to provide concepts and solutions to overcome any identified unresolved issues. Based on exemplary use-case scenarios, application-specific security aspects of NFC are extracted. The current security architectures of NFC-enabled mobile phones are evaluated with regard to the identified security aspects. As a result of the exemplary use-cases, this research focuses on the interaction with NFC tags and on card emulation. For each of these two modes of NFC, this thesis reveals attack scenarios that are possible despite existing security concepts. For the interaction with NFC tags, a new attack scenario is introduced that allows modification of tag content even though its authenticity and integrity were supposedly guaranteed by a digital signature scheme. Moreover, potential privacy issues and remaining problems have been identified in the NFC Forum’s signature scheme specification. For the card emulation scenario, the mobile phone itself is identified as a significant, yet unconsidered, threat. Specifically, the well-known concept of relay attacks on smartcards is extended to the mobile phone platform. By using the phone’s processing capabilities and communication facilities, relay attacks can be mounted in a significantly easier and less obvious way. These assumptions are verified through prototypical implementations. Possible solutions and workarounds to overcome these issues are outlined and evaluated with regard to their advantages and disadvantages.

@phdthesis{bib:2013-roland-phd, title = {{Security Issues in Mobile NFC Devices}}, author = {Roland, Michael}, school = {Johannes Kepler University Linz, Department of Computational Perception}, address = {Linz, Austria}, year = {2013}, month = JAN }
M. Roland: “Demonstrator für hochratige RFID- und NFC-Systeme”, Master's thesis, University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Embedded Systems Design, Hagenberg, Austria, 2009.
Abstract

RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) and NFC (Near Field Communication) are wireless data transmission technologies. They are used for the communication with smart cards and mobile devices. Smart cards, NFC devices and their applications are subject to continuous development. The improvement of these technologies and the development of new applications reach a limit defined by the low transmission speed of the currently standardized RFID technology. Current RFID systems have a maximum data rate of 848 kbps. The FIT-IT research project VHD (Very High Datarate) – High Speed Air-Interface and IC Architecture for Contactless Smartcards and NFC – is devoted to eliminating this restraining factor by implementing higher data rates for RFID and NFC systems.

This diploma thesis deals with the development of a “demonstrator” platform, that demonstrates the data transmission with a data rate of up to 6.78 Mbps. Based on an analysis of current concepts and prototypes, new demonstrator hardware is built. A whole data transmission link is implemented on top of this hardware: A PC (personal computer) writes data through a wire-based interface onto a transponder (“chip card”). This transponder transmits the data across the wireless VHD interface to another PC.

The wireless link defines the requirements for an appropriate communication protocol. These requirements are summarized and are, then, used to implement that protocol. Finally, a sample application scenario proves the operability of the demonstrator system. This application scenario demonstrates the transmission of a digital photo across the VHD link.

@mastersthesis{bib:2009-roland-ma, title = {{Demonstrator für hochratige RFID- und NFC-Systeme}}, author = {Roland, Michael}, school = {University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Embedded Systems Design}, address = {Hagenberg, Austria}, year = {2009}, month = JUN }
M. Roland: “Automatic-Tuning-Device für NFC (Endbericht zum Berufspraktikum bei NXP Semiconductors Austria)”, Bachelor's thesis, University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Hardware/Software Systems Engineering, Hagenberg, Austria, 2007.
Abstract

This essay deals with the work during my internship at NXP Semiconductors.

At first this essay gives an insight into the company, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Near Field Communication (NFC). After an introduction to manual impedance matching of antennas to NFC-ICs it finally shows how the hardware and the software of an Automatic-Tuning-Device have been developed.

@thesis{bib:2007-roland-ba2, title = {{Automatic-Tuning-Device für NFC (Endbericht zum Berufspraktikum bei NXP Semiconductors Austria)}}, author = {Roland, Michael}, type = {Bachelor thesis}, school = {University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Hardware/Software Systems Engineering}, address = {Hagenberg, Austria}, year = {2007}, month = JUN }
M. Roland: “USB Storage Device Class: Überblick und Einbindung in AVR AT90USB1287”, Bachelor's thesis, University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Hardware/Software Systems Engineering, Hagenberg, Austria, 2007.
Abstract

This bachelor’s thesis deals with the structure and the usage of the USB Mass Storage Class. Moreover it introduces drafts for using the USB Mass Storage Class with Atmel’s AVR AT90USB1287 microcontroller.

At first this document gives a brief overview of the structure and the functionality of the Universal Serial Bus. Secondly the USB Mass Storage Class, its applications, its components and several protocols for accessing the data storage are explained. Starting with a summary of the various functionality and the USB controller of the AVR AT90USB1287 this paper describes two drafts for integrating the USB Mass Storage Class into this microcontroller. Therefore it illustrates the handling of Atmel’s USB Firmware Architecture. Finally a description of the fundamental steps towards creating a USB mass storage application completes this bachelor’s thesis.

@thesis{bib:2007-roland-ba1, title = {{USB Storage Device Class: Überblick und Einbindung in AVR AT90USB1287}}, author = {Roland, Michael}, type = {Bachelor thesis}, school = {University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Hardware/Software Systems Engineering}, address = {Hagenberg, Austria}, year = {2007}, month = MAR }

Miscellaneous

M. Pöll and M. Roland: “Analyzing the Reproducibility of System Image Builds from the Android Open Source Project”, Technical report, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute of Networks and Security, Christian Doppler Laboratory for Private Digital Authentication in the Physical World, 2021.
fulltext
Abstract

This work proposes a modular automation toolchain to analyze the current state and measure over-time improvements of reproducibility of the Android Open Source Project (AOSP). While perfect bit-by-bit equality of binary artifacts would be a desirable goal to permit independent verification if binary build artifacts really are the result of building a specific state of source code, this form of reproducibility is often not (yet) achievable in practice. In fact, binary artifacts may require to be designed in a way that makes it impossible to simply detach all sources of non-determinism and all non-reproducible build inputs (such as private signing keys). We introduce “accountable builds” as a form of reproducibility that allows such legitimate deviations from 100 percent bit-by-bit equality. Based on our framework that builds AOSP with its native build system, automatically compares artifacts, and computes difference scores, we perform a detailed analysis of discovered differences, identify typical accountable changes, and analyze current major issues that lead to non-reproducibility. While we find that AOSP currently builds neither fully reproducible nor fully accountable, we derive a trivial weighted change metric to continuously monitor changes in reproducibility over time.

@techreport{bib:2021-poell-tr-reproducibilityaospsystemimages, title = {{Analyzing the Reproducibility of System Image Builds from the Android Open Source Project}}, author = {Pöll, Manuel and Roland, Michael}, institution = {Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute of Networks and Security, Christian Doppler Laboratory for Private Digital Authentication in the Physical World}, year = {2021}, month = JUL }
M. Preisach and M. Roland: “Group Signature Applications: Direct Anonymous Attestation”, Technical report, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute of Networks and Security, Christian Doppler Laboratory for Private Digital Authentication in the Physical World, 2021.
fulltext
@techreport{bib:2021-preisach-tr-groupsignatureapplications, title = {{Group Signature Applications: Direct Anonymous Attestation}}, author = {Preisach, Michael and Roland, Michael}, institution = {Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute of Networks and Security, Christian Doppler Laboratory for Private Digital Authentication in the Physical World}, year = {2021}, month = JUN }
R. Mayrhofer, M. Roland, T. Höller, and M. Schwaighofer: “Towards Threat Modeling for Private Digital Authentication in the Physical World”, Technical report, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute of Networks and Security, Christian Doppler Laboratory for Private Digital Authentication in the Physical World, 2021.
fulltext
Abstract

Various forms of digital identity increasingly act as the basis for interactions in the “real” physical world. While transactions such as unlocking physical doors, verifying an individual’s minimum age, or proving possession of a driving license or vaccination status without carrying any form of physical identity document or trusted mobile device could be easily facilitated through biometric records stored in centralized databases, this approach would also trivially enable mass surveillance, tracking, and censorship/denial of individual identities.

Towards a vision of decentralized, mobile, private authentication for physical world transactions, we propose a threat model and requirements for future systems. Although it is yet unclear if all threats listed in this paper can be addressed in a single system design, we propose this first draft of a model to compare and contrast different future approaches and inform both the systematic academic analysis as well as a public opinion discussion on security and privacy requirements for upcoming digital identity systems.

@techreport{bib:2021-mayrhofer-tr-digidowthreatmodeling, title = {{Towards Threat Modeling for Private Digital Authentication in the Physical World}}, author = {Mayrhofer, René and Roland, Michael and Höller, Tobias and Schwaighofer, Martin}, institution = {Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute of Networks and Security, Christian Doppler Laboratory for Private Digital Authentication in the Physical World}, year = {2021}, month = APR }
M. Roland, M. Mayr, R. Holzinger, and M. Vogl: “Exposed Building”, in G. Stocker, C. Schöpf, and H. Leopoldseder (Eds.): In Kepler’s Gardens – A global journey mapping the ‘new’ world, Hatje Cantz Verlag, Berlin, 2020. ISBN 978-​3-​7757-​4760-​8.
@inbook{bib:2020-roland-ars-electronica, title = {{Exposed Building}}, author = {Roland, Michael and Mayr, Michael and Holzinger, Robert and Vogl, Markus}, editor = {Stocker, Gerfried and Schöpf, Christine and Leopoldseder, Hannes}, booktitle = {In Kepler's Gardens – A global journey mapping the 'new' world}, publisher = {Hatje Cantz Verlag}, address = {Berlin}, isbn = {978-3-7757-4760-8}, year = {2020}, month = SEP }
M. Roland, T. Höller, M. Sonntag, and R. Mayrhofer: “The not so private way of tracing contacts: A first analysis of the NOVID20 Android SDK”, Analysis report, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute of Networks and Security, 2020.
fulltext
Abstract

Contact tracing is one of the main approaches widely proposed for dealing with the current, global SARS-CoV-2 crisis. As manual contact tracing is error-prone and doesn’t scale, tools for automated contact tracing, mainly through smart phones, are being developed and tested. While their effectiveness—also in terms of potentially replacing other, more restrictive measures to control the spread of the virus—has not been fully proven yet, it is critically important to consider their privacy implications from the start. Deploying such tools quickly at mass scale means that early design choices may not be changeable in the future, and potential abuse of such technology for mass surveillance and control needs to be prevented by their own architecture.

Many different implementations are currently being developed, including international projects like PEPP-PT/DP-3T and national efforts like the “Stopp Corona” app published by the Austrian Red Cross. In this report, we analyze an independent implementation called NOVID20 that aims to provide a common framework for on-device contact tracing embeddable in different apps. That is, NOVID20 is an SDK and not a complete app in itself. The initial code drop on Github was released on April 6, 2020, without specific documentation on the intent or structure of the code itself. All our analysis is based on the Android version of this open source code alone. Given the time period, our analysis is neither comprehensive nor formal, but summarizes a first impression of the code.

NOVID20 follows a reasonable privacy design by exchanging only pseudonyms between the phones in physical proximity and recording them locally on-device. However, there is some room for improvement: (a) pseudonyms should be generated randomly on the phone, and not on the server side; (b) transmitted pseudonyms should be frequently rotated to avoid potential correlation; (c) old records should automatically be deleted after the expunge period; (d) absolute location tracking, while handled separately from physical proximity and only optionally released, can be problematic depending on its use—absolute location data must be protected with additional anonymization measures such as Differential Privacy, which are left to the application/server and may, therefore, not be implemented correctly; and (e) device analytics data, while helpful during development and testing, should be removed for real deployments. Our report gives more detailed recommendations on how this may be achieved.

We explicitly note that all of these points can be fixed based on the current design, and we thank the NOVID20 team for openly releasing their code, which made this analysis possible in a shorttime window.

@techreport{bib:2020-roland-tr-novid20, title = {{The not so private way of tracing contacts: A first analysis of the NOVID20 Android SDK}}, author = {Roland, Michael and Höller, Tobias and Sonntag, Michael and Mayrhofer, René}, institution = {Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute of Networks and Security}, year = {2020}, month = APR }
M. Roland: “Executing Arbitrary Code in the Context of the Smartcard System Service”, Vulnerability report, Computing Research Repository (CoRR), arXiv:1601.05833 [cs.CR], University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, JR-Center u’smile, 28 pages, 2016.
arXiv
Abstract

This report summarizes our findings regarding a severe weakness in implementations of the Open Mobile API deployed on several Android devices. The vulnerability allows arbitrary code coming from a specially crafted Android application package (APK) to be injected into and executed by the smartcard system service component (the middleware component of the Open Mobile API implementation). This can be exploited to gain elevated capabilities, such as privileges protected by signature- and system-level permissions assigned to this service. The affected source code seems to originate from the SEEK-for-Android open-source project and was adopted by various vendor-specific implementations of the Open Mobile API, including the one that is used on the Nexus 6 (as of Android version 5.1).

@techreport{bib:2016-roland-tr-seekvuln, title = {{Executing Arbitrary Code in the Context of the Smartcard System Service}}, author = {Roland, Michael}, institution = {University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, JR-Center u'smile}, pages = {0--28}, howpublished = {Computing Research Repository (CoRR), arXiv:1601.05833 [cs.CR]}, year = {2016}, month = JAN }
M. Roland and M. Hölzl: “Open Mobile API: Accessing the UICC on Android Devices”, Technical report, Computing Research Repository (CoRR), arXiv:1601.03027 [cs.CR], University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, JR-Center u’smile, 76 pages, 2016.
arXiv
Abstract

This report gives an overview of secure element integration into Android devices. It focuses on the Open Mobile API as an open interface to access secure elements from Android applications. The overall architecture of the Open Mobile API is described and current Android devices are analyzed with regard to the availability of this API. Moreover, this report summarizes our efforts of reverse engineering the stock ROM of a Samsung Galaxy S3 in order to analyze the integration of the Open Mobile API and the interface that is used to perform APDU-based communication with the UICC (Universal Integrated Circuit Card). It further provides a detailed explanation on how to integrate this functionality into CyanogenMod (an after-market firmware for Android devices).

@techreport{bib:2016-roland-tr-omapi, title = {{Open Mobile API: Accessing the UICC on Android Devices}}, author = {Roland, Michael and Hölzl, Michael}, institution = {University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, JR-Center u'smile}, pages = {--76}, howpublished = {Computing Research Repository (CoRR), arXiv:1601.03027 [cs.CR]}, year = {2016}, month = JAN }
M. Roland and M. Hölzl: “Evaluation of Contactless Smartcard Antennas”, Technical report, Computing Research Repository (CoRR), arXiv:1507.06427 [cs.CR], University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, JR-Center u’smile, 29 pages, 2015.
arXiv
Abstract

This report summarizes the results of our evaluation of antennas of contactless and dual interface smartcards and our ideas for user-switchable NFC antennas. We show how to disassemble smartcards with contactless capabilities in order to obtain the bare chip module and the bare antenna wire. We examine the design of various smartcard antennas and present concepts to render the contactless interface unusable. Finally, we present ideas and practical experiments to make the contactless interface switchable by the end-user.

@techreport{bib:2015-roland-tr-cardantennas, title = {{Evaluation of Contactless Smartcard Antennas}}, author = {Roland, Michael and Hölzl, Michael}, institution = {University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, JR-Center u'smile}, pages = {--29}, howpublished = {Computing Research Repository (CoRR), arXiv:1507.06427 [cs.CR]}, year = {2015}, month = JUL }
M. Roland: “Applying recent secure element relay attack scenarios to the real world: Google Wallet Relay Attack”, Technical report, Computing Research Repository (CoRR), arXiv:1209.0875 [cs.CR], University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, NFC Research Lab Hagenberg, 29 pages, 2012.
arXiv
Abstract

This report explains recent developments in relay attacks on contactless smartcards and secure elements. It further reveals how these relay attacks can be applied to the Google Wallet. Finally, it gives an overview of the components and results of a successful attempt to relay an EMV Mag-Stripe transaction between a Google Wallet device and an external card emulator over a wireless network.

@techreport{bib:2012-roland-tr-googlewallet, title = {{Applying recent secure element relay attack scenarios to the real world: Google Wallet Relay Attack}}, author = {Roland, Michael}, institution = {University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, NFC Research Lab Hagenberg}, pages = {--29}, howpublished = {Computing Research Repository (CoRR), arXiv:1209.0875 [cs.CR]}, year = {2012}, month = SEP }
M. Roland: “Security & Privacy Issues of the Signature RTD”, 2012.
Event
NFC Forum Member Meeting, Face-to-Face Meeting of the Security Working Group
Frankfurt, Germany
08 February 2012
@misc{bib:2012-roland-tr-signaturertd, title = {{Security \& Privacy Issues of the Signature RTD}}, author = {Roland, Michael}, location = {Frankfurt, Germany}, address = {Frankfurt, Germany}, year = {2012}, month = JAN }
M. Roland: “Effects of Android’s SMS-URI parsing bug on NFC applications”, 2011.
fulltext
@misc{bib:2011-roland-tr-androidsms, title = {{Effects of Android's SMS-URI parsing bug on NFC applications}}, author = {Roland, Michael}, year = {2011}, month = MAY }
M. Roland: “Auslandssemester: Stockholm, Schweden”, 2009.
@misc{bib:2008-roland-erasmus, title = {{Auslandssemester: Stockholm, Schweden}}, author = {Roland, Michael}, institution = {University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Embedded Systems Design}, address = {Hagenberg, Austria}, year = {2009}, month = JAN }